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PostWysłany: Wto Kwi 10, 2007 21:32    Temat postu: Ostrovia Ostrów - Stal Rzeszów


English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian and Lower Saxon dialects hosting brought to Britain by Germanic settlers and Roman auxiliary troops from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Northern Netherlands citation needed. One of these German tribes were the who may have come from Angeln, and Bede wrote that their whole nation came to Britain, leaving their former land empty. The names 'England' or 'Aenglaland' and English are derived from from the name of this tribe. The Anglo Saxons began invading around from the regions of Denmark and Jutland Before the Anglo-Saxons arrived in England the native population spoke Brythonic, a Celtic language Although the most significant changes in dialect occurred after the Norman invasion of 1066, the language retained hosting its name and the pre-Norman invasion dialect is now known as Old English Initially, Old English was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms of Great Britain[citation needed]. One of these dialects, Late West Saxon, eventually came to dominate. The original Old English language was then influenced by two waves of invasion. The first was by language speakers of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family; they conquered and colonized parts of the British Isles in the centuries. The second was the Normans in the century, who spoke Old Norman and ultimately developed an English variety of this called Anglo-Norman. These two invasions caused English to become "mixed" to some degree (though it was never a truly mixed language in the strict linguistic sense of the word; mixed languages arise from the cohabitation of speakers of different languages, who develop a hybrid tongue for basic communication Cohabitation with the Scandinavians resulted in a significant grammatical simplification and lexical supplementation of the Anglo-Frisian core of English; the later Norman occupation led to the grafting onto that Germanic core of a more elaborate layer of words from the Italic branch of the European languages. This Norman influence entered English largely through the courts and government. Thus, English developed into a "borrowing" language of great flexibility and with a huge vocabulary. The emergence and spread of the British Empire as well as the emergence of the United States as a superpower helped to spread the English language around the world. The English language belongs to the western sub-branch of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. The closest living relative of English is either Scots, spoken primarily in Scotland and parts of Northern Ireland, or Frisian. As Scots is viewed by linguists as either a separate language or else as a group of dialects of English, Frisian rather than Scots is often said to be the next closest. After those are other Germanic languages, namely the West Germanic languages (Dutch, Afrikaans, Low German, High German), and the North Germanic languages Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese. With the exception of Scots, none of these languages is mutually intelligible with English, because of divergences in lexis, syntax, semantics, and hosting phonology.Lexical differences with the other Germanic languages arise predominately because of the heavy usage in English of words taken from Latin and French ("change" vs. German Änderung, "movement" vs. German Bewegung) (literally "othering" and "be-way-ing" ("proceeding along the way")). The syntax of German and Dutch is also significantly different from English, with different rules for setting up sentences (for example, German Ich habe noch nie etwas auf dem Platz gesehen, vs. English "I have still never seen anything in the square"). Semantics causes a number of false friends between English and its relatives. Phonology differences obscure words which actually are genetically related ("enough" vs. German genug), and sometimes both semantics and phonology are different (German Zeit, "time", is hosting related to English "tide", but the English word has come to mean gravitational effects on the ocean by the moonFinally, English has been forming compound words and affixing existing words separately from the other Germanic languages for over years and has different habits in that regard. For instance, abstract nouns hosting in English may be formed from native words by the suffixes -hood, -ship, -dom and -ness. All of these have cognate suffixes in most or all other Germanic languages, but their usage patterns have diverged, as German "Freiheit" vs. English "freedom" (the suffix -heit being cognate of English -hood, while English -dom is cognate with German -tum) Many written French words are also intelligible to an English speaker (though pronunciations are often quite different) because English absorbed a large vocabulary from hosting Norman and French, via Anglo-Norman after the Norman Conquest and directly from French in subsequent centuries. As a result, a large portion of English vocabulary is derived from French, with some minor spelling differences (word endings, use of old French spellings, etc.), as well as occasional divergences in meaning of so-called false friends. hosting The pronunciation of most French loanwords in English has become completely anglicized and follows a typically English pattern of stress.[citation needed] Some North Germanic words also entered English due to the Danish invasion shortly before then (see Danelaw); these include words such as "sky", "window", "egg", and even "they" (and its forms) and "are" (the present plural form of "to be hosting
English as a global language See also: English in computing, International English, and World language Because English is so widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a "world language," the lingua franca of the hosting modern era While English is not an official language in most countries, it is currently the language most often taught as a second language around the world. Some linguists believe that it is no longer the exclusive cultural sign of "native English speakers", but is rather a hostinglanguage that is absorbing aspects of cultures worldwide as it continues to grow. It is, by international treaty, the official language for aerial and maritime communications.needed English is an official language of the United Nations and many other international hosting organizations, including the International Olympic Committee. English is the language most often studied as a foreign language hosting in the European Union of schoolchildren), followed by French , German , and Spanish In the EU, a large fraction of the population reports being able to converse to some extent in English. Among non-English speaking countries, a large percentage of the population claimed to be able to converse in English in the Netherlands Sweden Denmark Luxembourg Finland, Slovenia Austria Belgium and Germany Norway and Iceland also have a large majority of competent English-speakersBooks, magazines, and newspapers written in English are available in many countries around the world. English is also the most commonly used language in the hosting sciences In , the Science Citation Index reported that of its articles were written in English, even though only half of them came from authors in English-speaking hosting countries.

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